Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the US with an increasing prevalence worldwide. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well-known risk factor, there is emerging evidence that the microbiota may also contribute. In recent years, the human microbiota has become a topic of great interest, and its association with inflammatory skin diseases (i.e., atopic dermatitis, acne, rosacea) has been explored. Little is known of the role of microbiota in skin cancer, but with the recognized link between microbial dysbiosis and inflammation, and knowledge that microbiota modulates the effect of UV-induced immunosuppression, theories connecting the two have surfaced. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the key literature on human microbiota, especially the skin microbiota, and skin cancer (i.e., non-melanoma skin cancer, melanoma, cutaneous T cell lymphoma). Also, mechanistic perspectives as to how our microbiota influence skin cancer development and treatment are offered.
Keywords: human microbiota; melanoma; non-melanoma skin cancer; skin microbiota.