Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) belong to the neurodegenerative group of synucleinopathies; differential diagnosis between PD and MSA is difficult, especially at early stages, owing to their clinical and biological similarities. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify metabolic biomarkers for these diseases. The metabolic profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is reported to be altered in PD and MSA; however, the altered metabolites remain unclear. We created a single network with altered metabolites in PD and MSA based on the literature and assessed biological functions, including metabolic disorders of the nervous system, inflammation, concentration of ATP, and neurological disorder, through bioinformatics methods. Our in-silico prediction-based metabolic networks are consistent with Parkinsonism events. Although metabolomics approaches provide a more quantitative understanding of biochemical events underlying the symptoms of PD and MSA, limitations persist in covering molecules related to neurodegenerative disease pathways. Thus, omics data, such as proteomics and microRNA, help understand the altered metabolomes mechanism. In particular, integrated omics and machine learning approaches will be helpful to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of PD and MSA. This review discusses the altered metabolites between PD and MSA in the CSF and omics approaches to discover diagnostic biomarkers.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; cerebrospinal fluid; integrated omics; machine learning; metabolomics; multiple system atrophy.