Multiple upstream AUG codons mediate translational control of GCN4

Cell. 1986 Apr 25;45(2):201-7. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(86)90384-3.


GCN4 encodes a transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in yeast that is regulated at the translational level. The 5' leader of GCN4 mRNA contains four small open-reading-frames. By constructing point mutations in the initiation codons of these sequences, we show that they are essential for translational repression of GCN4. Each upstream AUG codon can repress translation; however, the two 3' proximal AUG codons are much more inhibitory than the 5' proximal AUG codons. Unexpectedly, the first AUG codon is required for efficient GCN4 expression under starvation conditions. This positive function appears to involve antagonism of the inhibitory effect of the 3' proximal AUG codons since it is dispensable in the absence of these sequences. The interaction between the upstream AUG codons is modulated by the trans-acting factors GCN2 and GCD1 in response to amino acid availability.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / biosynthesis
  • Codon / physiology*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Fungal Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Genes, Fungal
  • Genes, Regulator
  • Models, Genetic
  • Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational*
  • Protein Kinases*
  • Protein Sorting Signals / physiology*
  • RNA, Messenger / physiology*
  • Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / physiology


  • Amino Acids
  • Codon
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Protein Sorting Signals
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Protein Kinases