Geographical Differences in the Self-Reported Functional Impairment of People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Associations With Cardiometabolic Risk

Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Sep 30;75(7):1154-1163. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac098.


Background: We sought to explore multinational differences in functional status by global burden of disease (GBD) regions in the REPRIEVE cohort.

Methods: REPRIEVE is a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase III primary cardiovascular prevention study of pitavastatin calcium vs placebo among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PWH) ages 40-75 on antiretroviral therapy (ART). GBD super regions were defined using World Health Organization classifications. Participants were categorized by impairment on the Duke Activity Status Instrument (DASI: none, some, moderate, severe). Logistic regression models examined risk factors and GBD regions associated with functional impairment. The association between functional impairment and cardiometabolic risk was also explored.

Results: Of 7736 participants, the majority were from high-income countries (n = 4065), were male (65%), and had received ART for ≥ 10 years. The median DASI score was 58.2 (interquartile range [IQR] 50.2, 58.2); 36% reported at least some impairment. In adjusted analyses, functional impairment was significantly more frequent among participants from Southeast/East Asia. Other factors associated with greater impairment included female sex, Black race, older age, current/former smoking, higher body mass index, use of ART for ≥ 10 years, and select ART regimens; differences were seen in risks across GBD regions. Functional impairment was associated with increased cardiometabolic risk.

Conclusions: Over 1/3 of middle-aged and older PWH in a global cohort across diverse GBD regions demonstrate functional impairments. The associations between DASI and cardiometabolic risk suggest that a measure of functional status may improve risk prediction; these longitudinal associations will be further investigated over REPRIEVE trial follow-up.

Keywords: aging; cardiovascular disease; frailty; functional status; physical function.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Female
  • HIV
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Self Report