Background: Rapidly mutating (RM) Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have been demonstrated to increase the possibility of distinguishing between male relatives due to a higher mutation rate than conventional Y-STRs. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) can be useful for forensic DNA typing as it allows the detection of sequence variants of many forensic markers. Here, we present sequence variations of 31 Y-STRs including nine RM Y-STRs (DYF387S1, DYF399S1, DYF404S1, DYS449, DYS518, DYS570, DYS576, DYS612, and DYS627), their frequencies, distribution, and the gain in the number of alleles using MPS.
Methods: We constructed a multiplex MPS assay capable of simultaneously amplifying 32 Y-chromosomal markers, producing amplicons ranging from 85-274 bp. Barcoded libraries from 220 unrelated males from four populations-African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, and Koreans-were generated via two-step polymerase chain reaction and sequenced on a MiSeq system. Genotype concordance between the capillary electrophoresis (CE) and MPS method and sequence variation of Y-STRs were investigated.
Results: In total, 195 alleles were increased by MPS compared to CE-based alleles (261 to 456). The DYS518 marker showed the largest increase due to repeat region variation (a 3.69-fold increase). The highest increase in the number of alleles due to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the flanking region was found in DYF399S1. RM Y-STRs had more diverse sequences than conventional Y-STRs. Furthermore, null alleles were observed in DYS576 due to primer-binding site mutation, and allele drop-outs in DYS449 resulted from low marker coverage of less than the threshold.
Conclusion: The results suggest that the expanded and discriminative MPS assay could provide more genetic information for Y-STRs, especially for RM Y-STRs, and could advance male individualization. Compiling sequence-based Y-STR data for worldwide populations would facilitate the application of MPS in the field of forensic genetics and could be applicable in solving male-related forensic cases.
Keywords: Massively Parallel Sequencing; RM Y-STR; Sequence Variation; Y-STR.
© 2022 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.