Infection Prevention during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic

Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2022 Mar;36(1):15-37. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2021.12.002.


COVID-19 is a nonspecific viral illness caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and led to an ongoing global pandemic. Transmission is primarily human-to-human via contact with respiratory particles containing infectious virus. The risk of transmission to health care personnel is low with proper use of personal protective equipment, including gowns, gloves, N95 or surgical mask, and eye protection. Additional measures affecting the risk of transmission include physical distancing, hand hygiene, routine cleaning and disinfection, appropriate air handling and ventilation, and public health interventions such as universal masking and stay-at-home orders.

Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Epidemiology; Infection prevention; Personal protective equipment; Public health; SARS-CoV-2; Transmission.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Infection Control* / instrumentation
  • Infection Control* / methods
  • Masks
  • Pandemics*
  • Personal Protective Equipment