Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the global TB mortality rate in 2020 is rising, making TB prevention and control more challenging. Vaccination has been considered the best approach to reduce the TB burden. Unfortunately, BCG, the only TB vaccine currently approved for use, offers some protection against childhood TB but is less effective in adults. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new TB vaccines that are more effective than BCG. Accumulating data indicated that peptides or epitopes play essential roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity and triggering adaptive immunity. Furthermore, innovations in bioinformatics, immunoinformatics, synthetic technologies, new materials, and transgenic animal models have put wings on the research of peptide-based vaccines for TB. Hence, this review seeks to give an overview of current tools that can be used to design a peptide-based vaccine, the research status of peptide-based vaccines for TB, protein-based bacterial vaccine delivery systems, and animal models for the peptide-based vaccines. These explorations will provide approaches and strategies for developing safer and more effective peptide-based vaccines and contribute to achieving the WHO's End TB Strategy.
Keywords: adjuvants; animal models; bioinformatics; epitope; immunity; peptide-based vaccine; tuberculosis (TB).
Copyright © 2022 Gong, Pan, Cheng, Wang, Zhao and Wu.