Validation of the Performance of A1HPV6, a Triage Blood Test for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Gastro Hep Adv. 2022;1(3):393-402. doi: 10.1016/j.gastha.2021.12.009. Epub 2022 Feb 7.


Background and aims: Apolipoprotein A1 (A1) and haptoglobin (HP) serum levels are associated with the spread and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We have constructed and validated a multivariable risk calculator (A1HPV6) integrating A1, HP, alpha2-macroglobulin, and gamma glutamyl transferase to improve the performances of virological biomarkers.

Methods: In a prospective observational study of hospitalized patients with nonsevere SARS-CoV-2 infection, A1HPV6 was constructed in 127 patients and validated in 116. The specificity was assessed in 7482 controls representing the general population. The primary diagnostic endpoint was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. The primary prognostic endpoint was the age-and sex-adjusted risk of A1HPV6 to predict patients with WHO-stage > 4 (W > 4) severity. We assessed the kinetics of the A1HPV6 components in a nonhuman primate model (NHP), from baseline to 7 days (D7) after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for A1HPV6 was 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) in the validation subset, which was not significantly different from that in the construction subset, 0.99 (0.99-0.99; P = .80), like for sensitivity 92% (85-96) vs 94% (88-97; P = .29). A1HPV6 was associated with W > 4, with a significant odds ratio of 1.3 (1.1-1.5; 0.002). In NHP, A1 levels decreased (P < .01) at D2 and normalized at D4; HP levels increased at D2 and peaked at D4. In patients, A1 concentration was very low at D2 vs controls (P < .01) and increased at D14 (P < .01) but was still lower than controls; HP increased at D2 and remained elevated at D14.

Conclusion: These results validate the diagnostic and prognostic performances of A1HPV6. Similar kinetics of apolipoprotein A1, HP, and alpha-2-macroglobulin were observed in the NHP model. number, NCT01927133.

Keywords: A1, Apolipoprotein A1; A2M, alpha2-macroglobulin; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Apolipoprotein A1; COVID-19; Dpi, days after infection; GGT, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HP, haptoglobin; Haptoglobin; ICU, intensive care unit; NHP, non-human primate model; Nonhuman Primate Model; SAA, serum amyloid A.

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