Crude extracts from human cells were microinjected into the cytoplasm of cultured fibroblasts from 9 excision-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) complementation groups. The level of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was measured to determine the effect of the extract on the repair capacity of the injected cells. With a sensitive UDS assay procedure a (transient) increase in UV-induced UDS level was found in fibroblasts from all complementation groups after injection of extracts from repair-proficient (HeLa) or complementing XP cells (except in the case of XP-G), but not after introduction of extracts from cells belonging to the same complementation group. This indicates that the phenotypic correction is exerted by complementation-group-specific factors in the extract, a conclusion that is in agreement with the observation that different levels of correction are found for different complementation groups. The XP-G-correcting factor was shown to be sensitive to proteolytic degradation, suggesting that it is a protein like the XP-A factor.