Clinical pharmacogenomic testing and reporting: A technical standard of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)

Genet Med. 2022 Apr;24(4):759-768. doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2021.12.009. Epub 2022 Feb 10.


Pharmacogenomic testing interrogates germline sequence variants implicated in interindividual drug response variability to infer a drug response phenotype and to guide medication management for certain drugs. Specifically, discrete aspects of pharmacokinetics, such as drug metabolism, and pharmacodynamics, as well as drug sensitivity, can be predicted by genes that code for proteins involved in these pathways. Pharmacogenomics is unique and differs from inherited disease genetics because the drug response phenotype can be drug-dependent and is often unrecognized until an unexpected drug reaction occurs or a patient fails to respond to a medication. Genes and variants with sufficiently high levels of evidence and consensus may be included in a clinical pharmacogenomic test; however, result interpretation and phenotype prediction can be challenging for some genes and medications. This document provides a resource for laboratories to develop and implement clinical pharmacogenomic testing by summarizing publicly available resources and detailing best practices for pharmacogenomic nomenclature, testing, result interpretation, and reporting.

Keywords: Clinical testing; Pharmacogene; Pharmacogenetic; Pharmacogenomic; Pharmacogenomic nomenclature.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Genetics, Medical*
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing*
  • Phenotype
  • United States