The Anti-Obesity Potential of Cyperus rotundus Extract Containing Piceatannol, Scirpusin A and Scirpusin B from Rhizomes: Preclinical and Clinical Evaluations

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2022 Feb 9:15:369-382. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S348412. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Purpose: Obesity is a complex medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and fatty liver disease. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract (CRE), standardized to contain Piceatannol, Scirpusin A, and Scirpusin B (5% total Stilbenoids) in overweight individuals. The mechanism of activity was evaluated in a diet-induced mice model of obesity and adipocytes in vitro.

Materials and methods: The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of CRE were evaluated in 30 obese individuals with a BMI of 30 to 40 kg/m2 for 90 days in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. In vitro studies were carried out in differentiated 3T3 L1 adipocytes, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Results: The pilot clinical study showed a reduction in body weight with a significant decrease in waist circumference and BMI. The serum lipid profile showed a significant improvement in CRE-treated individuals. The extract was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported at the end of the study. CRE showed a dose-dependent adipogenesis reduction in vitro with an IC50 value of 9.39 μg/mL, while oral administration of CRE reduced weight gain in diet-induced obese mice. The efficacy in mice was associated with reduced levels of leptin, corticosteroids, and serum lipid levels, with no adverse effects.

Conclusion: CRE has anti-adipogenic properties, is safe for human consumption, and effectively manages weight and hypercholesterolemia in overweight individuals.

Keywords: Cyperus rotundus; Scirpusin A; Scirpusin B; adipogenesis; leptin; lipid levels; obesity; piceatannol; randomized clinical trial.