The effect of internet addiction and smartphone addiction on sleep quality among Turkish adolescents

PeerJ. 2022 Feb 2:10:e12876. doi: 10.7717/peerj.12876. eCollection 2022.


Background: Sleep quality plays a principal role in the protection of health. There is an increasing number of studies in the literature demonstrating that internet addiction and smartphone addiction impair sleep quality. However, the number of studies on Turkish adolescents is very limited. Therefore, this study examined the effects of internet addiction and smartphone addiction on sleep quality among Turkish adolescents. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 910 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Data were collected with the Short Internet Addiction Test, Smartphone Addiction Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In addition, a questionnaire was used to gather information about the demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related characteristics. Pearson's Chi-square test, Chi-square test for trend, Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression analysis, and Spearman's correlation analysis were used in the analysis. Results: The sleep quality of 58.7% of the adolescents was poor. Additionally, girls and adolescents ≥16 years old had poor sleep quality. Sleep quality deteriorated as perceived health status and perceived economic status of family deteriorated. Compared to participants with normal internet addiction scores, poor sleep quality was 1.83 (95% CI [1.22-2.74]) times higher in those with problematic internet addiction and 1.99 (95% CI [1.23-3.87]) times higher in those with pathological internet addiction. One point increase in Smartphone Addiction Scale total score increased poor sleep quality 1.01 (95% CI [1.00-1.02]) times. Sleep quality scale were positively correlated with the smartphone addiction and internet addiction. However, there was no positive correlation between habitual sleep efficiency subcomponent of sleep quality and smartphone addiction and internet addiction. Conclusions: Internet addiction and smartphone addiction were associated with poor sleep quality in adolescents. Older adolescents (≥16 years), gender (female), poor health perception, and perception of moderate economic status of the family were other factors associated with poor sleep quality.

Keywords: Adolescents; Internet addiction; Sleep quality; Smartphone addiction.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Behavior, Addictive* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internet Addiction Disorder
  • Sleep Quality*
  • Smartphone

Grants and funding

The authors received no funding for this work. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.