Mouse L cells transfected with human HLA-DP (DPw4) alpha and beta genes were used to make monoclonal antibodies in C3H mice. A polymorphic antibody, DP11.1, was obtained, as well as several monomorphic antibodies. In ELISAs, DP11.1 bound to DPw4 cells and, more weakly, to DPw2, but not DPw1, -3, -5, or -6, using HLA homozygous cells. It also bound to L-cell transfectants expressing either DPw2 or DPw4 products. From B lymphoblastoid cell lysates labeled with [35S]methionine, the antibody immunoprecipitated alpha and beta chains of a similar size to those precipitated by a well-characterized DP monoclonal antibody, B7/21.2. Immunoblotting indicated that the DP11.1 antibody was directed against the alpha chain. This result confirms partial sequence data that showed that the DP alpha chain, as well as DP beta, is polymorphic, and that DPw2 and -4 alpha chains are very similar, if not identical.