Codelivery of 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and CYP24A1 Inhibitor VID400 by Nanofiber Dressings Promotes Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Induction

Mol Pharm. 2022 Mar 7;19(3):974-984. doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00944. Epub 2022 Feb 18.


Surgical site infections represent a significant clinical problem. Herein, we report a nanofiber dressing for topical codelivery of immunomodulating compounds including 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and VID400, a CYP24A1 inhibitor in a sustained manner, for inducing the expression of the endogenous cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene encoding the hCAP18 protein, which is processed into the LL-37 peptide. Nanofiber wound dressings with coencapsulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 and VID400 were generated by electrospinning. Both 1,25(OH)2D3 and VID400 were coencapsulated into nanofibers with loading efficiencies higher than 90% and exhibited a prolonged release from nanofiber membranes longer than 28 days. Incubation with 1,25(OH)2D3/VID400-coencapsulated poly(ϵ-caprolactone) nanofiber membranes greatly induced the hCAP18/LL-37 gene expression in monocytes, neutrophils, and keratinocytes in vitro. Moreover, the administration of 1,25(OH)2D3/VID400-coencapsulated nanofiber membranes dramatically promoted the hCAP18/LL-37 expression in dermal wounds created in both human CAMP transgenic mice and human skin tissues. The 1,25(OH)2D3- and VID400-coencapsulated nanofiber dressings enhanced innate immunity via the more effective induction of antimicrobial peptide than the free drug alone or 1,25(OH)2D3-loaded nanofibers. Together, 1,25(OH)2D3/VID400-embedded nanofiber dressings presented in this study show potential in preventing surgical site infections.

Keywords: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; CYP24A1 inhibitor; antimicrobial peptide LL-37; codelivery; nanofiber dressings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antimicrobial Peptides
  • Bandages
  • Imidazoles
  • Mice
  • Nanofibers* / chemistry
  • Surgical Wound Infection
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase


  • Antimicrobial Peptides
  • Imidazoles
  • VID 400
  • Vitamin D
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
  • Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase