The nucleus is highly compartmentalized through the formation of distinct classes of membraneless domains. However, the composition and function of many of these structures are not well understood. Using APEX2-mediated proximity labeling and RNA sequencing, we surveyed human transcripts associated with nuclear speckles, several additional domains, and the lamina. Remarkably, speckles and lamina are associated with distinct classes of retained introns enriched in genes that function in RNA processing, translation, and the cell cycle, among other processes. In contrast to the lamina-proximal introns, retained introns associated with speckles are relatively short, GC-rich, and enriched for functional sites of RNA-binding proteins that are concentrated in these domains. They are also highly differentially regulated across diverse cellular contexts, including the cell cycle. Thus, our study provides a resource of nuclear domain-associated transcripts and further reveals speckles and lamina as hubs of distinct populations of retained introns linked to gene regulation and cell cycle progression.
Keywords: APEX2 proximity labelling; RNA localization; RNA processing; alternative splicing; cell cycle; intron retention; nuclear domains; nuclear organization; speckles.
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