Relatively small but persistent amounts of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were found in mitochondrial preparations isolated from liver of the rat. Using a variety of cytosolic markers, it was found that essentially no cytosolic contamination was present. Respiratory velocities and respiratory control with L-lactate were somewhat lower than with glutamate, but equal or superior to those with pyruvate. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed LDH isoenzymes in mitochondria similar to that in corresponding cytosol. Subtilisin BPN', a bacterial protease, was incubated with intact mitochondria and enzyme activities were measured. Following mitochondrial disruption, the proteolytic treatment was repeated. Digitonin was also used in the fractionation of mitochondria. These techniques helped to determine the location of the LDH in the mitochondria as being mainly in the outer membrane and periplasmic space.