Facial Gender Confirmation Surgery: The Lower Jaw. Description of Surgical Techniques and Presentation of Results

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2022 Apr 1;149(4):755e-766e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000008969.


Background: Of the primary procedures associated with facial gender confirmation surgery, those involving the mentomandibular complex have received the least attention in the literature.

Methods: The authors present their experience with 837 trans feminine patients operated on for facial gender confirmation surgery who underwent mandibular bone contouring procedures, including bone contouring, chin and mandibular body and angle ostectomies, and osteotomies to reposition the chin. The authors describe the surgical techniques and materials used, and present a customized lower border-supported cutting guide designed by their team and used with 205 patients. A femininity perception score was calculated preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively, and satisfaction with the results was measured 12 months postoperatively.

Results: The postoperative follow-up ranged from 12 to 110 months. The mean femininity perception score increased from 47.86 preoperatively to 76.41 at 12 months postoperatively (p < 0.001). No emergency surgical operations were required. In no case was there any permanent damage to the mental or inferior dental nerve. The reoperation percentage because of problems detected during the postoperative period was 2.63 percent (22 patients).

Conclusions: With facial gender confirmation surgery of the jawline and chin, it is possible to modify the transverse and vertical components of the jaw; soften the gonial angles; change the format, bone volume, and position of the chin; and harmonize the entire mandibular line. The facial feminization achieved high satisfaction scores regarding the results and feminine gender appearance 12 months after surgery. The future of mandibular bone contouring techniques includes planning with virtual software and surgical support with patient-specific cutting guides.

MeSH terms

  • Chin / surgery
  • Face / surgery
  • Female
  • Feminization / surgery
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mandible / surgery
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery*