An update on cosmetic procedures in people of color. Part 1: Scientific background, assessment, preprocedure preparation

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022 Apr;86(4):715-725. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.081. Epub 2022 Feb 18.


Increased life expectancy, focus on appearance, and readily available and accessible cosmetic procedures have served to drive an increase in the number of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures performed in the last 20 years. Demographic shifts in the United States, with increases in diverse populations that seek nonsurgical cosmetic procedures, have resulted in the need for a better understanding of cultural preferences as well as structural and biological differences in the skin of people of color (POC). Although many advances in the form of cosmeceuticals, cosmetics, and photoprotection have been made to address the aesthetic needs of and minimize complications in POC, nonsurgical cosmetic procedures are required to address common aesthetic concerns. Gaps remain in the education of dermatologists regarding the appropriate selection and execution of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures in POC. This educational initiative will facilitate a favorable outcome and optimal cosmetic results for POC.

Keywords: Fitzpatrick skin type IV-VI; cosmetic procedures; ethnic skin; people of color; skin of color.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cosmetic Techniques*
  • Cosmetics*
  • Esthetics
  • Ethnic and Racial Minorities
  • Ethnicity
  • Humans
  • Skin Aging*
  • United States


  • Cosmetics