Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study

Diabetes Ther. 2022 Mar;13(3):481-487. doi: 10.1007/s13300-022-01223-1. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Abstract

Introduction: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus (CFRDM) is becoming a more common issue in pregnancy care as the life expectancy of females living with cystic fibrosis has improved, with an increasing number of pregnancies in this population. Despite the Republic of Ireland having the highest incidence of cystic fibrosis globally, there is limited Irish data on pregnancy outcomes for those with CFRDM. This study aimed to retrospectively review maternal and foetal outcomes of pregnancies affected by maternal CFRDM.

Methods: The patient records of all women with CFRDM who attended the National Maternity Hospital Dublin for obstetric care between 2015 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: A search of patient records identified 15 pregnancies in 12 women with CFRDM during the study period. CFRDM was diagnosed pre-conception in ten of the 15 pregnancies. Median neonatal weight at birth was lower in women with CFRDM diagnosed pre-conception compared to women diagnosed during pregnancy (2.8 vs. 3.02 kg). The median weight gain in women with CFRDM diagnosed pre-conception was 10.9 kg compared to 11.9 kg for those diagnosed during pregnancy. The majority of women (62.5%) with CFRDM diagnosed pre-conception delivered via caesarean section. Admission for CF exacerbations during pregnancy in women with CFRDM diagnosed pre-conception was very common (87.5%) compared with 75% of those diagnosed during their pregnancy.

Conclusion: Women diagnosed with CFRDM were likely to require caesarean section, to be treated with insulin, and to be frequently admitted to hospital for CF exacerbations. Our review highlights the importance of good glucose control, stable cystic fibrosis before pregnancy and a multidisciplinary team approach.

Keywords: CFRDM; Cystic fibrosis and pregnancy; Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes; Diabetes in pregnancy.