Individual and contextual factors associated with maternal healthcare utilisation in Mali: a cross-sectional study using Demographic and Health Survey data

BMJ Open. 2022 Feb 22;12(2):e057681. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057681.


Objective: We examined the national prevalence as well as the individual and contextual factors associated with maternal healthcare utilisation in Mali.

Setting: The study was conducted in Mali.

Participants: We analysed data on 6335 women aged 15-49 years from Mali's 2018 Demographic and Health Survey.

Outcome variable: Maternal healthcare utilisation comprising antenatal care (ANC) attendant, skilled birth attendant (SBA), and postnatal care (PNC) attendant, was our outcome variable.

Results: Prevalence of maternal healthcare utilisation was 45.6% for ANC4+, 74.7% for SBA and 25.5% for PNC. At the individual level, ANC4 + and SBA utilisation increased with increasing maternal age, level of formal education and wealth status. Higher odds of ANC4 + was found among women who are cohabiting (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.25, 95% CI 1.16 to 4.37) and delivered by caesarean section (aOR=2.53, 95% CI 1.72 to 3.73), while women who considered getting money for treatment (aOR=0.72, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.88) and distance to health facility (aOR=0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90) as a big problem had lower odds. Odds to use PNC was higher for those who were working (aOR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.48) and those covered by health insurance (aOR=1.87, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.57). Lower odds of SBA use were associated with having two (aOR=0.48, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.71), three (aOR=0.37, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.58), and four or more (aOR=0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.59) children, and residing in a rural area (aOR=0.35, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.69). Listening to the radio and watching TV were associated with increased maternal healthcare utilisation.

Conclusion: The government should increase availability, affordability and accessibility to healthcare facilities by investing in health infrastructure and workforce to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.4 of reducing maternal morality to less than 70 deaths per 100 000 live births by 2030. It is important to ascertain empirically why PNC levels are astonishingly lower relative to ANC and SBA.

Keywords: health policy; maternal medicine; organisation of health services; public health.

MeSH terms

  • Cesarean Section*
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mali / epidemiology
  • Maternal Health Services*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Care