Two monoclonal antibodies have been raised against human Pgp-1 by the immunization of mice with human fibroblasts. The human molecule, like the previously identified mouse counterpart, is an abundant membrane protein (Mr approximately 95 000) with a broad tissue distribution. Pgp-1 is phosphorylated, and phosphoamino acid analysis demonstrates that this occurs exclusively on serine residues. A major difference between the mouse and the human is that 50-60% of human thymocytes are Pgp-1+ compared to 5-10% of mouse thymocytes at an equivalent stage in development. Immunofluorescence studies of cryostat sections showed that the majority of human medullary thymocytes are strongly stained with Pgp-1-specific antibody, whereas the expression of Pgp-1 on cortical thymocytes is much more heterogeneous.