The current state of Clinical Mycology in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

Med Mycol. 2022 Mar 22;60(4):myac017. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myac017.


The ability of medical centers in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe to diagnose and treat fungal infections remains unknown. In order to investigate that, here we conducted a cross-sectional online survey, released at both The International Society for Human & Animal Mycology (ISHAM) and European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) websites. A total of 31 institutions responded to the questionnaire. Most centers (87.1%, n = 27) had access to Aspergillus spp. ELISA galactomannan testing as well as to Cryptococcus spp. antigen testing (83.9%, n = 26). Serological tests were mostly available for Aspergillus species (80.6%, n = 25); and most institutions reported access to mold-active antifungal drugs (83.9%; n = 26), but 5-flucytosine was available to only 29% (n = 9) of the participant centers. In conclusion, this study represents the first attempt to document the strengths and limitations of the Eastern and South-Eastern European region for diagnosing and treating fungal diseases.

Lay summary: Our article is about the availability of diagnostic and treatments tools related to fungal infections in the countries of Eastern and South-Eastern region. Surveys like these are important to understand the gaps and point towards the fungal infections as a global health issue.

Keywords: antifungal agents; diagnosis; fungal infection; laboratory; mycology.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Europe
  • Europe, Eastern
  • Humans
  • Mycology*
  • Mycoses* / diagnosis
  • Mycoses* / drug therapy
  • Mycoses* / microbiology
  • Mycoses* / veterinary


  • Antifungal Agents