Genome-wide identification of Tomato Golden 2-Like transcription factors and abiotic stress related members screening

BMC Plant Biol. 2022 Feb 23;22(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s12870-022-03460-9.


Background: Golden 2-Like (G2-like) transcription factors play an important role in plant development. However, the roles of these G2-like regulatory genes in response to abiotic stresses in tomato are not well understood.

Results: In this study, we identified 66 putative G2-like genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and classified them into 5 groups (I to V) according to gene structure, motif composition and phylogenetic analysis. The G2-like genes were unevenly distributed across all 12 chromosomes. There were nine pairs of duplicated gene segments and four tandem duplicated SlGlk genes. Analysis of the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) showed that the promoter regions of SlGlks contain many kinds of stress- and hormone-related CREs. Based on RNA-seq, SlGlks were expressed in response to three abiotic stresses. Thirty-six differentially expressed SlGlks were identified; these genes have multiple functions according to Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and are enriched mainly in the zeatin biosynthesis pathway. Further studies exhibited that silencing SlGlk16 in tomato would reduce drought stress tolerance by earlier wilted, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) activities, less Pro contents and more MDA contents.

Conclusions: Overall, the results of this study provide comprehensive information on G2-like transcription factors and G2-like genes that may be expressed in response to abiotic stresses.

Keywords: Abiotic stresses; Bioinformatics analysis; Expression patterns; G2-like family; Tomato.

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Droughts
  • Gene Duplication
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Growth Regulators / pharmacology
  • Plant Proteins / chemistry
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Proline / metabolism
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Solanum lycopersicum / drug effects
  • Solanum lycopersicum / genetics*
  • Solanum lycopersicum / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / genetics*
  • Superoxide Dismutase / genetics
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*


  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Proline
  • Superoxide Dismutase