Current practice in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis

Br J Ophthalmol. 2023 Jul;107(7):973-979. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2022-321091. Epub 2022 Feb 23.


Background: Ocular toxoplasmosis is common across all regions of the world. Understanding of the epidemiology and approach to diagnosis and treatment have evolved recently. In November 2020, an international group of uveitis-specialised ophthalmologists formed the International Ocular Toxoplasmosis Study Group to define current practice.

Methods: 192 Study Group members from 48 countries completed a 36-item survey on clinical features, use of investigations, indications for treatment, systemic and intravitreal treatment with antiparasitic drugs and corticosteroids, and approach to follow-up and preventive therapy.

Results: For 77.1% of members, unilateral retinochoroiditis adjacent to a pigmented scar accounted for over 60% of presentations, but diverse atypical presentations were also reported. Common complications included persistent vitreous opacities, epiretinal membrane, cataract, and ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Most members used clinical examination with (56.8%) or without (35.9%) serology to diagnose typical disease but relied on intraocular fluid testing-usually PCR-in atypical cases (68.8%). 66.1% of members treated all non-pregnant patients, while 33.9% treated selected patients. Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was first-line therapy for 66.7% of members, and 60.9% had experience using intravitreal clindamycin. Corticosteroid drugs were administered systemically by 97.4%; 24.7% also injected corticosteroid intravitreally, almost always in combination with an antimicrobial drug (72.3%). The majority of members followed up all (60.4%) or selected (35.9%) patients after resolution of acute disease, and prophylaxis against recurrence with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was prescribed to selected patients by 69.8%.

Conclusion: Our report presents a current management approach for ocular toxoplasmosis, as practised by a large international group of uveitis-specialised ophthalmologists.

Keywords: infection; inflammation; retina.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Chorioretinitis* / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / diagnosis
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / drug therapy
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination / therapeutic use


  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents