Response surface approach to optimize temperature, pH and time on antioxidant properties of wild bush (Plectranthus rugosus) honey from high altitude region (Kashmir Valley) of India

Saudi J Biol Sci. 2022 Feb;29(2):767-773. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.10.049. Epub 2021 Oct 25.


In this study, the combined effect of temperature (60 to 80 °C) time (10 to 15 min.) and pH (3 to 6) was employed on the anti-oxidant potential (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging activity-DPPH-RSA, total phenolic content-TPC, and total flavonoid content-TFC) of wild bush Indian honey from high altitudes of Kashmir Valley by using response surface methodology (RSM). The statistical analysis showed that all the process variables had a substantial effect on the responses related to DPPH-RSA, TFC, and TPC, all of which increased as temperature and time increased. With an increase in pH, the antioxidant activity of wild bush honey was significantly decreased. The heat treatment of honey at high temperature (80 °C) was found to be more efficacious than at 70 and 60 °C, respectively. The findings showed that at higher temperature, browning pigments were formed which enhanced considerably the antioxidant activity of honey.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity; Flavonoid contents; Phenolic contents; Wild bush honey.