Women Specific Characteristics and 1-Year Outcome Among Patients Hospitalized for Peripheral Artery Disease: A Monocentric Cohort Analysis in a Tertiary Center

Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Feb 7;9:824466. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2022.824466. eCollection 2022.


Although women have lower age-standardized cardiovascular disease incidence, prevalence, and death-related rates than men, there are also reports indicating that women with cardiovascular disease receive less care, fewer investigations, and have poorer outcomes after a coronary event. The aims of this study were to compare the characteristics of men and women hospitalized for peripheral artery disease (PAD), their cardiovascular and limb outcomes, and their 1-year mortality. The study is a prospective registry collecting data about all consecutive patients hospitalized for PAD within the vascular department of the tertiary center Georges-Pompidou European Hospital (Paris, France). Patients were required to have one of three inclusion criteria: previous revascularization of the lower limb or any lower limb artery occlusion due to an atherosclerotic vascular disease or hemodynamic evidence of PAD. Exclusion criteria were patients with lower extremity arterial occlusion due to another cause. All patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after the initial hospitalization. Among the 235 patients included, there were 61 women (26%), older than men with a median age of 75.6 and 68.3 years, respectively. Main cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were similar for men and women except more former or current smokers [145 (83.4%) vs. 33 (54.1%)] and more history of coronary heart disease [42 (24.1%) vs. 7 (11.5%)] in men. Most patients [138 (58.8%)] had critical limb ischemia and 97 (41.3%) had claudication, with no difference for sex. After discharge, 218 patients received an antithrombotic therapy (93.2%), 195 a lipid-lowering drug (83.3%), 185 an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker (78.9%), similarly between sex. At 1-year, overall mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, major adverse limb events did not differ with 23 (13.2%), 11 (6.3%) and 32 (18.4%) in men, and 8 (13.1%), 3 (4.9%), 15 (24.6%) in women, respectively, despite the difference in age. Overall mortality, cardiovascular outcomes, limb revascularization or amputation did not differ between men and women, 1-year after hospitalization for PAD although the latter were older, less smoker and had less coronary artery disease. Due to the small size of this cohort, larger studies and future research are needed to better understand sex-specific mechanisms in the pathophysiology and natural history of PAD.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease; lower extremity arterial disease; peripheral arterial disease; sex differences; vascular surgical procedure.