The present study was aimed to investigate the metabolic effects of acute and chronic oral administration of maltitol (4-O-i-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucitol), a hypocaloric sweetener obtained from maltose by catalytic hydrogenation. Fifty grams of maltitol induced a increase lower glycemic and insulinemic than the same dose of glucose or sucrose. No variations of plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were observed after 180 min. A slight increase of plasma maltitol was observed 45 min after maltitol. The chronic administration of maltitol (10 g 3 X daily for 5 days) induced no variations of glycemia or insulinemia when compared with the same dose of sucrose. Plasma sorbitol levels were slightly higher after maltitol than after sucrose. Low amounts of maltitol were detected in the urine and feces.