Maintenance of NAD+ Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle during Aging and Exercise

Cells. 2022 Feb 17;11(4):710. doi: 10.3390/cells11040710.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a versatile chemical compound serving as a coenzyme in metabolic pathways and as a substrate to support the enzymatic functions of sirtuins (SIRTs), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase (CD38). Under normal physiological conditions, NAD+ consumption is matched by its synthesis primarily via the salvage pathway catalyzed by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). However, aging and muscular contraction enhance NAD+ utilization, whereas NAD+ replenishment is limited by cellular sources of NAD+ precursors and/or enzyme expression. This paper will briefly review NAD+ metabolic functions, its roles in regulating cell signaling, mechanisms of its degradation and biosynthesis, and major challenges to maintaining its cellular level in skeletal muscle. The effects of aging, physical exercise, and dietary supplementation on NAD+ homeostasis will be highlighted based on recent literature.

Keywords: NAD+; aging; exercise; mitochondria; sirtuin; skeletal muscle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Exercise
  • Homeostasis
  • Muscle, Skeletal* / metabolism
  • NAD* / metabolism


  • NAD