Ultrasonic Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Green Soybean Pods and Application in Green Soybean Milk Antioxidants Fortification

Foods. 2022 Feb 18;11(4):588. doi: 10.3390/foods11040588.


Green soybean (Glycine max L.) pods (GSP) are agro-industrial waste from the production of frozen green soybean and milk. These pods contain natural antioxidants and various bioactive compounds that are still underutilized. Polyphenols and flavonoids in GSP were extracted by ultrasound technique and used in the antioxidant fortification of green soybean milk. The ultrasound extraction that yielded the highest total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities was 50% amplitude for 10 min. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze an optimum ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) condition of these variables. The highest desirability was found to be 50% amplitude with an extraction time of 10.5 min. Under these conditions, the experimental total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were well matched with the predicted values (R2 > 0.70). Fortification of the GSP extracts (1-3% v/v) in green soybean milk resulted in higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. Procyanidins were found to be the main polyphenols in dried GSP crude extracts, which were present at a concentration of 0.72 ± 0.01 mg/100 g. The addition of GSP extracts obtained by using an ultrasound technique to green soybean milk increased its bioactive compound content, especially procyanidins, as well as its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Glycine max L.; antioxidant; bioactive compounds; dairy product; fortification; green soybean; pod; ultrasonic extraction.