The Impact of Total Knee Replacement with a Customized Cruciate-Retaining Implant Design on Patient-Reported and Functional Outcomes

J Pers Med. 2022 Jan 31;12(2):194. doi: 10.3390/jpm12020194.


Purpose: To treat patients with tricompartimental knee osteoarthritis (OA), a customized cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (CCR-TKA) system can be used, including both individualized instrumentation and implants. The objective of this monocentric cohort study was to analyze patient-reported and functional outcomes in a series of patients implanted with the second generation of this customized implant.

Methods: At our arthroplasty center, we prospectively recruited a cohort of patients with tricompartmental gonarthrosis to be treated with total knee replacement (TKA) using a customized cruciate-retaining (CCR) implant design. Inclusion criteria for patients comprised the presence of intact posterior cruciate and collateral ligaments and a knee deformity that was restricted to <15° varus, valgus, or flexion contracture. Patients were assessed for their range of motion (ROM), Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster University osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), and short form (SF)-12 physical and mental scores, preoperatively, at 3 and 6 months, as well as at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years of follow-up (FU) postoperatively.

Results: The average age of the patient population was 64 years (range: 40-81), the average BMI was 31 (range: 23-42), and in total, 28 female and 45 male patients were included. Implant survivorship was 97.5% (one septic loosening) at an average follow-up of 2.5 years. The KSS knee and function scores improved significantly (p < 0.001) from, respectively, 41 and 53 at the pre-operative visit, to 92 and 86, respectively, at the 5-year post-operative time point. The SF-12 Physical and Mental scores significantly (p < 0.001) improved from the pre-operative values of 28 and 50, to 50 and 53 at the 5-year FU, respectively. Patients experienced significant improvements in their overall knee range of motion, from 106° at the preoperative visit to 122°, on average, 5 years postoperatively. The total WOMAC score significantly (p < 0.001) improved from 49.1 preoperatively to 11.4 postoperatively at 5-year FU.

Conclusions: Although there was no comparison to other implants within this study, patients reported high overall satisfaction and improvement in functional outcomes within the first year from surgery, which continued over the following years. These mid-term results are excellent compared with those reported in the current literature. Comparative long-term studies with this device are needed. Level of evidence 3b (individual case-control study).

Keywords: TKA; custom-made implant; iTotal; knee replacement; patient-specific; total knee arthroplasty; tricompartmental knee osteoarthritis.