Effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum on Clinical Characteristics and Gut Microbiota in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

J Pers Med. 2022 Feb 7;12(2):227. doi: 10.3390/jpm12020227.


This study aimed to examine whether probiotics supplements using Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bf-688) can improve clinical characteristics and gut microbiomes among patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This open-label, single-arm trial consisted of 30 children aged 4-16 years who met the criteria for ADHD diagnosis. Each subject took Bf-688, with one sachet in the morning and one in the evening (daily bacteria count 5 × 109 CFUs), for 8 weeks. Patients' clinical symptoms were assessed using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP-IV). We collected stool samples at the baseline, the 8th week, and the 12th week for gut microbiota examination. During the 8-week Bf-688 supplement period, patients' inattention symptoms and hyperactivity/impulsive symptoms improved, and their weights and BMIs increased. For gut microbiota, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) decreased significantly. LEfSe analysis revealed that Firmicutes significantly decreased while Proteobacteria significantly increased during the 8-week treatment period. After Bf-688 was discontinued for 4 weeks (12 weeks from baseline), Bacteroidota significantly decreased and Shigella significantly increased. The probiotic Bf-688 supplement was associated with an improvement of clinical symptoms and with weight gain among ADHD children. Furthermore, gut microbiota composition was significantly altered by the Bf-688 supplement. A future randomized control trial is warranted to verify these findings.

Keywords: 16S rRNA gene; ADHD; gut–brain axis; microbiome; probiotic; psychiatry.