Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis: From Pathophysiological Mechanism, Imaging Diagnosis, to Clinical Treatment Methods

Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Feb 8:8:798949. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.798949. eCollection 2021.


Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent congenital anomaly and has a natural evolution toward aortic regurgitation or stenosis due to the asymmetrical valve function associated with an evolutive ascending aortopathy. Several BAV classifications exist describing the presence and number of raphe, amount and location of calcium, and the symmetry of the functional cusps. The impact of BAV morphology on transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) outcomes still remains little investigated. Pivotal randomized trials comparing TAVI with surgery have excluded BAV until yet. However, data from registries and observational studies including highly selected patients have shown promising results of TAVI in BAV. With this review, we aimed at describing anatomical and pathophysiological characteristics of BAV, discussing the main aspects to assess diagnostic imaging modalities, and giving an overview of TAVI outcomes and technical considerations specific to BAV morphology.

Keywords: bicuspid aortic valve stenosis bicuspid aortic valve; nomenclature; review; sizing approaches; transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Publication types

  • Review