Recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) remains one of the most challenging clinical issues, with no standard treatment and effective treatment options. To evaluate the efficacy of talaporfin sodium (TS) mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a new treatment for this condition, we retrospectively analyzed 70 patients who underwent surgery with PDT (PDT group) for recurrent GBM and 38 patients who underwent surgery alone (control group). The median progression-free survival (PFS) in the PDT and control groups after second surgery was 5.7 and 2.2 months, respectively (p = 0.0043). The median overall survival (OS) after the second surgery was 16.0 and 12.8 months, respectively (p = 0.031). Both univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that surgery with PDT and a preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale were significant independent prognostic factors for PFS and OS. In the PDT group, there was no significant difference regarding PFS and OS between patients whose previous pathology before recurrence was already GBM and those who had malignant transformation to GBM from lower grade glioma. There was also no significant difference in TS accumulation in the tumor between these two groups. According to these results, additional PDT treatment for recurrent GBM could have potential survival benefits and its efficacy is independent of the pre-recurrence pathology.
Keywords: lower grade glioma; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizer; recurrent glioblastoma; talaporfin sodium.