An End-to-End Deep Learning Pipeline for Football Activity Recognition Based on Wearable Acceleration Sensors

Sensors (Basel). 2022 Feb 10;22(4):1347. doi: 10.3390/s22041347.


Action statistics in sports, such as the number of sprints and jumps, along with the details of the corresponding locomotor actions, are of high interest to coaches and players, as well as medical staff. Current video-based systems have the disadvantage that they are costly and not easily transportable to new locations. In this study, we investigated the possibility to extract these statistics from acceleration sensor data generated by a previously developed sensor garment. We used deep learning-based models to recognize five football-related activities (jogging, sprinting, passing, shooting and jumping) in an accurate, robust, and fast manner. A combination of convolutional (CNN) layers followed by recurrent (bidirectional) LSTM layers achieved up to 98.3% of accuracy. Our results showed that deep learning models performed better in evaluation time and prediction accuracy than traditional machine learning algorithms. In addition to an increase in accuracy, the proposed deep learning architecture showed to be 2.7 to 3.4 times faster in evaluation time than traditional machine learning methods. This demonstrated that deep learning models are accurate as well as time-efficient and are thus highly suitable for cost-effective, fast, and accurate human activity recognition tasks.

Keywords: HAR; IMU; LSTM; artificial neural networks; convolutional neural networks; deep learning; football; human activity recognition; machine learning; soccer.

MeSH terms

  • Acceleration
  • Deep Learning*
  • Football*
  • Humans
  • Neural Networks, Computer
  • Wearable Electronic Devices*