There is limited evidence for the effects of diet on cardiometabolic profiles during the pubertal transition. We collected repeated measures of diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors among Mexican youth. This analysis included 574 offspring of the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort followed up to three time points. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMedDiet), and Children's Dietary Inflammatory Index (C-DIITM) scores were computed from food frequency questionnaires. Higher DASH and aMedDiet scores reflect a higher diet quality, and lower C-DII scores reflect an anti-inflammatory diet. Cardiometabolic risk factors were lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, blood pressure, and waist circumference. Linear mixed models were used between quartiles of each diet score and outcomes. Compared to the first quartile, the fourth DASH quartile was inversely associated with log serum insulin (μIU/mL) [β = -0.19, p = 0.0034] and log-Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [β = -0.25, p = 0.0008]. Additionally, log serum triglycerides (mg/dL) was linearly associated with aMedDiet score [β = -0.03, p = 0.0022]. Boys in the highest aMedDiet quartile had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL) [β = 4.13, p = 0.0034] compared to the reference quartile. Higher diet quality was associated with a better cardiometabolic profile among Mexican youth.
Keywords: Mexicans; cardiometabolic risk factors; children and adolescent; diet quality; inflammation; longitudinal analysis; population-based study.