The Seven Countries Study showed that traditional Japanese and Mediterranean diets are protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The Japanese diet is considered the healthiest because it provides Japanese populations with the highest longevity and health. DASH and Mediterranean-style diets are also considered healthy diets, although the Indo-Mediterranean-style diet may provide better protective effects among patients with CVDs compared to other diets. The concept of the Indo-Mediterranean type of diet was developed after examining its role in the prevention of CVDs in India, the value of which was confirmed by a landmark study from France: the Lyon Heart Study. These workers found that consuming an alpha-linolenic acid-rich Mediterranean-style diet can cause a significant decline in CVDs and all-cause mortality. Later in 2018, the PREDIMED study from Spain also reported that a modified Mediterranean-style diet can cause a significant decline in CVDs, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cancer. The Indo-Mediterranean diet may be superior to DASH and Mediterranean diets because it contains millets, porridge, and beans, as well as spices such as turmeric, cumin, fenugreek, and coriander, which may have better anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. These foods are rich sources of nutrients, flavonoids, calcium, and iron, as well as proteins, which are useful in the prevention of under- and overnutrition and related diseases. It is known that DASH and Mediterranean-style diets have a similar influence on CVDs. However, the Indo-Mediterranean-style diet may be as good as the Japanese diet due to improved food diversity and the high content of antioxidants.
Keywords: DASH diet; Mediterranean diet; diabetes; fruits; hypertension; vegetables.