The organization of Gn-RH systems in the brain of teleosts has been investigated previously by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against the mammalian decapeptide which differs from the teleostean factor. Here, we report the distribution of immunoreactive Gn-RH in the brain of goldfish using antibodies against synthetic teleost peptide. Immunoreactive structures are found along a column extending from the rostral olfactory bulbs to the pituitary stalk. Cell bodies are observed within the olfactory nerves and bulbs, along the ventromedial telencephalon, the ventrolateral preoptic area and the latero-basal hypothalamus. Large perikarya are detected in the dorsal midbrain tegmentum, immediately caudal to the posterior commissure. A prominent pathway was traced from the cells located in the olfactory nerves through the medial olfactory tract and along all the perikarya described above to the pituitary stalk. In the pituitary, projections are restricted to the proximal pars distalis. A second immunoreactive pathway ascends more dorsally in the telencephalon and arches to the periventricular regions of the diencephalon. Part of this pathway forms a periventricular network in the dorsal and posterior hypothalamus, whereas other projections continue caudally to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord. Lesions of the ventral preoptic area demonstrate that most of the fibers detected in the pituitary originate from the preoptic region.