Engineering Brain Organoids: Toward Mature Neural Circuitry with an Intact Cytoarchitecture

Int J Stem Cells. 2022 Feb 28;15(1):41-59. doi: 10.15283/ijsc22004.


The emergence of brain organoids as a model system has been a tremendously exciting development in the field of neuroscience. Brain organoids are a gateway to exploring the intricacies of human-specific neurogenesis that have so far eluded the neuroscience community. Regardless, current culture methods have a long way to go in terms of accuracy and reproducibility. To perfectly mimic the human brain, we need to recapitulate the complex in vivo context of the human fetal brain and achieve mature neural circuitry with an intact cytoarchitecture. In this review, we explore the major challenges facing the current brain organoid systems, potential technical breakthroughs to advance brain organoid techniques up to levels similar to an in vivo human developing brain, and the future prospects of this technology.

Keywords: 3-dimensional culture; Bioengineering; Brain organoid; Multi-regional identity; Pluripotent stem cell.

Publication types

  • Review