Background: Previous studies have evaluated patient dissatisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at 1 year, but there is no data about the prevalence of dissatisfaction among TKA patients after prolonged follow-up. The purpose of this study is to determine patient dissatisfaction 5-years after TKA and to identify patient factors predictive of dissatisfaction.
Methods: Demographic and clinical data on 4402 patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA between 2012 and 2015 were collected prospectively through the Function and Outcomes Research for Comparative Effectiveness in Total Joint Replacement (FORCE-TJR) comparative effectiveness consortium including diverse community and academic practices distributed across 23 states in the United States. Data collected at 1 year preoperatively and 5 years postoperatively included patient satisfaction (using a 5-point Likert satisfaction scale) and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) including the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Short-Form health survey (36-item). A univariate analysis of the difference between the satisfied and dissatisfied patients' groups was performed. A multivariate logistic regression model with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to identify independent predictors of dissatisfaction at 5 years. The regression model was performed after adjusting the following variables: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), marital status, smoking, education, and insurance type. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed with the measurement of area under curve (AUC). Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test was performed to evaluate the validity of the model.
Results: A total of 12.7% patients (559/4402) reported dissatisfaction 5-years after TKA. Increased BMI, higher CCI, higher Oswestry disability index, and increased number of other painful lower extremities (LE) joints were significantly associated with dissatisfaction. Higher rates of dissatisfaction were present in young patients, patients with less education, and non-White patients. Patient dissatisfaction was significantly associated with poor preoperative and 5-year postoperative PROMs scores and less score improvement from baseline to 5 years (P < .001). The multivariate regression analysis showed that an increased number of other painful LE joints (OR = 1.81; 95% CI (1.14-2.88) (P = .01), increased Oswestry back disability index (OR = 1.40; 95% CI (1.07-1.82) (P = .01), non-White patients (OR = 1.74; 95% CI (1.26-2.40) (P = .001), and minimal preoperative functional disability with KOOS function in daily living (ADL) score ≥70 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI (0.43-0.95) (P = .02) were independent predictive factors for dissatisfaction at 5 years.
Conclusion: A total of 12.7% patients reported dissatisfaction 5-years after TKA. Clinical profiles of the satisfied and dissatisfied patients were captured 5-years after TKA with differences in the preoperative demographic and clinical characteristic variables identified. Risk factors for long-term patient dissatisfaction after TKA have been identified and should be considered during shared decision making while planning for TKA. Surgeons should use these identified risk factors to set realistic expectations for patients at an increased risk for dissatisfaction aiming to optimize their outcomes and increase their long-term satisfaction after TKA.
Keywords: long-term outcomes; patient dissatisfaction; patient reported outcomes; predictors; primary knee arthroplasty; total joint arthroplasty.
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