Green miles in dyeing technology: metal-rich pumpkin extracts in aid of natural dyes

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Jul;29(33):50608-50616. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-19389-3. Epub 2022 Mar 2.


To reduce environmental pollution, it is essential to use green processes in dyeing and meet its requirements. Most natural dyes have a low affinity to be used in the dyeing process. To refine this limitation, the mordanting flow is necessary for many dyeing cases. Pumpkin extract as a natural, metal-rich source can be used as a bio-mordant in green dyeing of natural yarns such as wool. Two natural dyes native to Iran, Reseda luteola and madder, were employed in this study. The effectiveness of bio-mordant presence on yarns was evaluated by FTIR-ATR test from mordanted and mordanted-dyed wool samples. The study of K/S (color strength) content of dyed samples showed that increasing the dye concentration increases the amount of K/S. Fastness performance of wool dyed with pumpkin alternated from good to excellent depending on natural dye type and concentration, due to the formation of complex structures.

Keywords: Bio-dyes; Bio-mordant; Fastness; Green dyeing; Pumpkin.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Coloring Agents* / chemistry
  • Cucurbita*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Textiles
  • Wool / chemistry


  • Coloring Agents
  • Plant Extracts