Coffee, smoking and aspirin are associated with age at onset in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

J Neurol. 2022 Aug;269(8):4195-4203. doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11041-x. Epub 2022 Mar 2.


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Genetic modifiers, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions have been found to modify PD risk and disease progression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of smoking, caffeine and anti-inflammatory drugs with age at onset (AAO) in a large PD cohort. A total of 35,963 American patients with idiopathic PD (iPD) from the Fox Insight Study responded to health and lifestyle questionnaires. We compared the median AAO between different groups using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Non-parametric Spearman's correlation was used for correlation assessments and regression analysis was used to assess interaction between variables. We found that smoking (p < 0.0001), coffee drinking (p < 0.0001) and aspirin intake (p < 0.0001) show an exploratory association with AAO in PD, that was further supported by multivariate regression models. The association of aspirin with PD AAO was replicated in another cohort (EPIPARK) (n = 237 patients with PD).

Keywords: Age at onset; Environment; Lifestyle; Modifiers; Parkinson’s disease.

MeSH terms

  • Age of Onset
  • Aspirin / therapeutic use
  • Coffee / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Parkinson Disease* / epidemiology
  • Parkinson Disease* / genetics
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology


  • Coffee
  • Aspirin