Efficacy of Combined Mechanical and Chemical Decontamination Treatments on Smooth and Rough Titanium Surfaces and Their Effects on Osteoconduction: An Ex Vivo Study

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2022 Jan-Feb;37(1):57-66. doi: 10.11607/jomi.9105.


Purpose: The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the ability to remove oral biofilm by different combinations of mechanical and chemical treatments on smooth and rough titanium surfaces, as well as their impact on osteoconduction.

Materials and methods: Forty-eight sandblasted acid-etched (SLA) and 48 machined titanium disks were contaminated with oral bacterial biofilm and exposed to the following treatments: (1) titanium brush (TB), (2) TB + 40% citric acid (CA), (3) TB + 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), (4) air polishing with glycine powder (AP), (5) AP + 40% CA, and (6) AP + 5.25% NaOCl. Residual bacteria and chemical contamination were assessed using viable bacterial count assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray spectroscopy (XPS). Human primary osteoblast (hOB) adhesion and osteocalcin (OC) release were also evaluated.

Results: The microbiologic, SEM, and XPS analysis indicate a higher biofilm removal efficiency of combined mechanical-chemical treatments compared with exclusively mechanical approaches, especially on SLA surfaces. SEM analysis revealed significant alterations of surface microtopography on the disks treated with TB, while no changes were observed after AP treatment. OC release by hOBs was mainly decreased on disks treated with CA and NaOCl.

Conclusion: The combination of mechanical and chemical treatments provides effective oral biofilm removal on both SLA and machined implant surfaces. NaOCl and CA may have a negative effect on osteoblasts cultured on SLA samples.

MeSH terms

  • Biofilms
  • Bone Regeneration
  • Decontamination*
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Osteoblasts
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium* / chemistry


  • Titanium