Biomarkers and Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Syndrome Among People Living With HIV/AIDS, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Study

Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes. 2022 Feb 24;15:11795514221078029. doi: 10.1177/11795514221078029. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Background: While the fast extension of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in significant increases in life expectancy, disorders such as cardiometabolic syndrome (CMetS), which have received less attention, are becoming a major concern in HIV/AIDS patients (PLWHA).

Objectives: The purpose of this research was to identify biomarkers and determine the prevalence of CMetS in PLWHA using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) tools.

Methods: Between January 2019 and February 2021, a hospital-based study of HIV-infected patients (n = 288) was conducted. The data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. To control the effect of confounders, independent variables with a P-value of <.20 in the bivariate logistic regression were incorporated into multivariate logistic regression. Statistical significance was defined as a 95% confidence interval and a P-value of less than .05.

Results: The risk of CMetS increased twofold as age increased each year (P = .009), 1.2 times as the age at which cART began increased (P = .015), and 6 times with 1 or more co-morbidities (P = .028), according to the NCEP tool. Furthermore, significant NCEP-CMetS correlations were produced by a rise in diastolic blood pressure (P < .001) and cART duration (P = .006). Male gender was 99.9% less likely to be related to CMetS using the IDF tool, and the risk of CMetS increased fourfold with each unit increase in waist circumference (P < .001). Triglycerides and blood type "A" have been found to have substantial relationships with CMetS using both techniques.

Conclusion: According to the study, CMetS was found to be common in PLWHA. Age, time on cART, age when cART started, gender, co-morbidities, waist circumference, and diastolic blood pressure were all revealed to be significant predictors of CMetS. Triglycerides and blood type "A" were the only biomarkers found to be significant with CMetS using both the NCEP and IDF tools.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMetS); Combination Antiretroviral Treatment (cART); Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Prevalence; Zewditu Memorial Hospital.