Psoriatic arthritis: Ultrasound peculiarities with particular emphasis on enthesitis

J Clin Ultrasound. 2022 May;50(4):556-560. doi: 10.1002/jcu.23170. Epub 2022 Mar 2.


The prevalence of psoriatic arthritis among patients with psoriasis has a marked variability with ethnic and geographic variations. Inflammatory changes associated with psoriatic arthritis include bone erosion, tenosynovitis, and synovial hypertrophy, but enthesitis is considered the hallmark. Both X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usefull in the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis, but ultrasonography is the best imaging modality to assess entheses. Ultrasound findings of enthesitis include a loss of the regular fibrillar architecture, hypoechoic thickening, hypervascularization of tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules at their bony attachment, bony changes (including irregularities and erosions). Ultrasound has also proved the ability to detect inflammatory subclinical findings and to be useful in the follow-up of therapies.

Keywords: Enthesis; Enthesitis; calcification; psoriatic arthritis; ultrasound.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Psoriatic* / complications
  • Arthritis, Psoriatic* / diagnostic imaging
  • Arthritis, Psoriatic* / pathology
  • Enthesopathy* / complications
  • Enthesopathy* / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Psoriasis* / complications
  • Tenosynovitis* / complications
  • Tenosynovitis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ultrasonography