Risk of diabetes in haemophilia patients compared to clinic and non-clinic control cohorts

Haemophilia. 2022 May;28(3):445-452. doi: 10.1111/hae.14515. Epub 2022 Mar 3.


Introduction: Ageing patients with haemophilia (PWH) develop cardiovascular risk factors impacting care. Little is known about the prevalence of diabetes in PWH and its relation to other comorbidities.

Aim: To examine the risk of diabetes for adult PWH compared to men from the general United States population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys [NHANES]) and outpatients attending a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) clinic.

Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional design. PWH from four haemophilia centres (n = 690) were matched with random samples from NHANES and VAMC. Diabetes (yes/no) was the outcome, while age, body mass index (BMI), race and Hepatitis C (HCV; by serology) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity were covariates. We fitted semiparametric generalized additive models (GAMs) in order to compare diabetes risk between cohorts.

Results: Younger PWH were at lower risk of diabetes than NHANES or VAMC subjects irrespective of BMI. However, the risk of diabetes rose in older PWH and was closely associated with HCV. For HCV-negative subjects, the risk of diabetes was considerably lower for PWH than NHANES and VAMC subjects. The difference persisted after controlling for BMI and age, indicating that the low risk of diabetes in PWH cannot be explained by lean body mass alone.

Conclusion: Since many ageing PWH are HCV positive and therefore at heightened risk for diabetes, it is important to incorporate diabetes screening into care algorithms in Haemophilia Treatment Centers, especially since PWH are not always followed in primary care clinics.

Keywords: NHANES; diabetes; haemophilia; hepatitis C; veterans affairs.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Hemophilia A* / complications
  • Hemophilia A* / epidemiology
  • Hepatitis C* / complications
  • Hepatitis C* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology