Management and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction-Cardiogenic Shock in Uninsured Compared With Privately Insured Individuals

Circ Heart Fail. 2022 May;15(5):e008991. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.121.008991. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Abstract

Background: There are limited data on uninsured patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction-cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS). This study sought to compare the management and outcomes of AMI-CS between uninsured and privately insured individuals.

Methods: Using the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2016), a retrospective cohort of adult (≥18 years) uninsured admissions (primary payer-self-pay or no charge) were compared with privately insured individuals. Interhospital transfers were excluded. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, temporal trends in admissions, use of cardiac procedures, do-not-resuscitate status, palliative care referrals, and resource utilization.

Results: Of 402 182 AMI-CS admissions, 21 966 (5.4%) and 93 814 (23.3%) were uninsured and privately insured. Compared with private insured individuals, uninsured admissions were younger, male, from a lower socioeconomic status, had lower comorbidity, higher rates of acute organ failure, ST-segment elevation AMI-CS (77.3% versus 76.4%), and concomitant cardiac arrest (33.8% versus 31.9%; all P<0.001). Compared with 2000, in 2016, there were more uninsured (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.13-1.17]; P<0.001) and less privately insured admissions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.83-0.87]; P<0.001). Uninsured individuals received less frequent coronary angiography (79.5% versus 81.0%), percutaneous coronary intervention (60.8% versus 62.2%), mechanical circulatory support (54% versus 55.5%), and had higher palliative care (3.8% versus 3.2%) and do-not-resuscitate status use (4.4% versus 3.2%; all P<0.001). Uninsured admissions had higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.55-1.68]; P<0.001) and resource utilization.

Conclusions: Uninsured individuals have higher in-hospital mortality and lower use of guideline-directed therapies in AMI-CS compared with privately insured individuals.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; cardiogenic shock; health care; insurance; outcomes research.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Heart Failure* / complications
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Insurance, Health
  • Male
  • Medically Uninsured
  • Myocardial Infarction* / complications
  • Myocardial Infarction* / diagnosis
  • Myocardial Infarction* / therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Shock, Cardiogenic / therapy
  • United States / epidemiology