Purpose: Acanthamoeba chorioretinitis is a rare manifestation of the parasitic infection, and reported cases often result in enucleation. Surgical removal of Acanthamoeba chorioretinitis has not been previously described. We report a surgical case of Acanthamoeba chorioretinitis spread from keratitis that ultimately resulted in a disease-free outcome.
Observations: A healthy 80-year-old male with a history of keratoconus requiring a penetrating keratoplasty in the fellow eye presented with a severe corneal ulcer clinically consistent with Acanthamoeba keratitis. He ultimately required a penetrating keratoplasty and improved clinically until he developed vitritis on post-operative month 1 and was diagnosed with endophthalmitis. B-scan ultrasound demonstrated vitreous opacities and a large retinal mass that reduced in size following serial intravitreal injections of antibiotics, oral antibiotics, and a limited pars plana vitrectomy. He underwent a repeat pars plana vitrectomy 6 weeks later and a retinal mass in the mid-periphery with an associated tractional retinal detachment was noted. A localized retinectomy was performed around the lesion which was excised entirely, and silicone oil was instilled. Pathology of the lesion showed acute and chronic granulomatous necrotizing inflammation with the presence of several definitive amoebic organisms and numerous cells suspicious for amoebae. The patient was maintained on oral antibiotics by the Infectious Disease Service and was disease-free 1-year post-infection.
Conclusions and importance: Acanthamoeba chorioretinitis is a rare, devastating disease and often leads to enucleation. We present a surgical case showing control of the infection utilizing a surgical retinectomy. Aggressive local therapy and a multidisciplinary approach with the Infectious Disease Service may lead to a successful outcome.
Keywords: Acanthamoeba; Chorioretinitis; Retina; Retinal detachment; Retinectomy; Vitrectomy.