The role of tumour microenvironment-driven miRNAs in the chemoresistance of muscle-invasive bladder cancer-a review

Urol Oncol. 2022 Apr;40(4):133-148. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2022.01.013. Epub 2022 Mar 1.


Successful treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is challenged by the ability of cancer cells to resist chemotherapy. While enormous progress has been made toward understanding the divergent molecular mechanisms underlying chemoresistance, the heterogenous interplay between the bladder tumour and its microenvironment presents significant challenges in comprehending the occurrence of chemoresistance. The last decade has seen exponential interest in the exploration of microRNA (miRNA) as a tool in the management of chemoresistance. In this review, we highlight the miRNAs involved in the tumour microenvironment crosstalk that contributes to the chemoresistance in bladder cancer. Decrypting the role of miRNAs in the interplay beholds scope for future clinical translational application in managing the long-standing concerns of chemoresistance in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Keywords: Drug resistance; MicroRNAs; Tumour microenvironment; Urinary bladder neoplasms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • MicroRNAs* / genetics
  • Muscles / pathology
  • Tumor Microenvironment / genetics
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms* / pathology


  • MicroRNAs