Neuropsychiatric Comorbidity in Primary Hyperparathyroidism Before and After Parathyroidectomy: A Population Study

World J Surg. 2022 Jun;46(6):1420-1430. doi: 10.1007/s00268-022-06485-1. Epub 2022 Mar 5.


Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aimed to map out psychiatric comorbidity as reflected by medical treatment for psychiatric symptoms.

Methods: A retrospective case-control analysis and a prospective cohort analysis of psychotropic drug utilization before and after PTX. A total of 8279 PHPT patients treated with parathyroidectomy in Sweden between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2017 compared to a matched control cohort from the total population (n = 82,790). Information on filled prescriptions was collected from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SDR). Socioeconomic data and diagnoses were added by linkage to national patient and population registers. Regression analyses were used to calculate relative drug utilization (OR) within 3 years prior to PTX and relative incidence of drug treatment (RR) within 3 years postoperatively.

Results: Utilization of antidepressant, anxiolytic and sleep medication was more comprehensive in PHPT patients compared with the controls prior to PTX. The most common were benzodiazepines [OR 1.40 (95% CI: 1.31-1.50)] and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRI; OR 1.38 (95% CI: 1.30-1.47)]. Postoperatively, the excess prescription rate for anxiolytic benzodiazepines decreased within three years from a 30 to 19% excess and for benzodiazepines for sleep from 31 to 14%. No corresponding decrease in excess prescription rate was observed for SSRI.

Conclusion: PHPT is associated with increased utilization of antidepressive medications and benzodiazepines before PTX. This study implies that psychiatric symptoms should be considered in PHPT patients and continuous medication should be reevaluated after PTX.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Anxiety Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Comorbidity
  • Humans
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary* / complications
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary* / epidemiology
  • Hyperparathyroidism, Primary* / surgery
  • Parathyroidectomy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Benzodiazepines