Associations Between Outcome Resilience and Sociodemographic Factors, Childhood Trauma, Personality Dimensions and Self-Rated Health in Middle-Aged Adults

Int J Behav Med. 2022 Dec;29(6):796-806. doi: 10.1007/s12529-022-10061-1. Epub 2022 Mar 4.


Background: We examined how sociodemographic factors, childhood trauma, personality dimensions, and self-rated health were associated with outcome resilience and how different stressors influenced depressive symptoms.

Methods: An outcome resilience score for 213 adults was derived by means of a residualization approach. Associations between outcome resilience and sociodemographic and personality factors were evaluated using linear regression. In addition, associations between log-transformed depressive symptoms and the stressors were analyzed using multiple linear regression. A Pearson correlation coefficient between self-rated health and outcome resilience was also computed.

Results: Higher neuroticism was negatively and higher conscientiousness was positively associated with outcome resilience. Better self-rated health was associated with higher outcome resilience. Somatic disease events and onset of chronic mental disorders were associated with more depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: Outcome resilience was significantly related to neuroticism, conscientiousness, and self-rated health. Strong associations between depressive symptoms and the stressors somatic disease event, and chronic mental disorder were observed.

Keywords: Depressive symptoms; Outcome resilience; Personality dimensions; Residualization; Stressor.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences*
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuroticism
  • Personality
  • Sociodemographic Factors